教学素材 | 新型冠状病毒疫情英文词汇表达(2)

新型冠状病毒疫情英文词汇表达(2)lprecaution:预防措施lwear masks outdoors:出门戴口罩lpersonal Protective Equipment:个人防护设备lmedical supplies:医疗物资lface-mask:口罩 lN95 face-mask:N95型口罩lsurgical mask:医用外科口罩ldisposable gloves:一次性手套ldisinfectant:消毒剂ldisinfector:消毒剂l75% ethyl alcohol:75%酒精lalcohol-based hand rub / sanitizer:含有酒精的洗手液lprotective screen:面罩lprotective suit:防护服lgoggles:护目镜lrespirator:口罩,医用口罩,呼吸机lwash hands frequently and properly:勤洗手和正确洗手lthoroughly cooked:彻底煮熟lsterilize:消毒,杀菌lcover coughs and sneezes with tissue:咳嗽和打喷嚏时用纸巾遮住口鼻lcover mouth and nose with tissue or flexed elbow:用纸巾或屈肘遮住口鼻lstrengthen your immune system:增强免疫系统lensure good room ventilation:保证室内通风lensure good room ventilation:保证室内通风lprevention and control:防控lvaccine:疫苗lcounter-virus:抗病毒的lpotency:效能,力量,潜力lvirus mutation:病毒变异lvirus strain:病毒株lgenetic sequence:基因序列lpathogen:病原体lpathogen genomic sequencing:病原体的基因组测序ldevelop antibodies and vaccines:抗体和疫苗研发lclinical trial:临床试验lfever clinic:发热门诊lnucleic acid testing(NAT):核酸检测lfalse positive:假阳性lhospitalize:住院lbe placed under medical observation:进行医学观察lreceive treatment in isolation:隔离治疗lself-quarantine at home:居家自我隔离lcentralized quarantine:集中隔离lepidemiological investigation:流行病学调查lscreening:筛查lhealth declaration form:健康状况信息登记表lphysician guidance:医嘱lbe discharged from medical observation:结束医学观察ldesignated hospitals:定点医院lcombat the pneumonia outbreak:抗击肺炎疫情linternal nonproliferation and external nonproliferation:内防扩散、外防输出lvirus monitoring and quarantine measures:病毒监控和隔离措施lreverse the tread of and increasing number of cases:扭转病例增加的趋势lhead of a high-level expert team:高级别专家组组长la prominent expert in respiratory diseases:呼吸系统疾病杰出专家lchief epidemiologist:流行病学首席科学leliminate social panic:消除社会恐慌lease the shortage of beds:缓解床位短缺lfeverish patients:发热病人lhealth workforce / medical staff:医务人员lmakeshift hospital / emergency hospital:应急医院lthe resilience of the health system:卫生系统抵御能力loptimize a treatment plan for critically ill patients:重症病人优化治疗方案lprove the infectiousness of the virus:证实病毒的传染性llevel 1 public health emergency response:重大突发公共卫生事件一级响应机制lscale up the level-1 response to major public health emergencies:启动重大突发公共卫生1级响应lreimbursement policy:报销政策lsuspend inter-province coach service:停运省际客运lsuspend all inter-province road passenger transport:暂停全部省际道路客运lfull refund without surcharges:免费退票lextension of holiday:延长假期lprolong winter break / delay spring semester:延迟开学ltravel warning:旅行警告lchartered evacuation flight:包机撤侨lrumormongering:造谣ldisinformation:虚假信息lcirculate:流传lsolidarity:团结,团结一致lmorale:士气,斗志lRed Cross Society of China:中国红十字会lthe National Health Commission:卫健委lthe U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:美国疾病控制与预防中心lthe Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity:彼得·多尔蒂感染和免疫研究所lShanghai Institute of Materia Medica under Chinese Academy of Sciences:中国科学院上海药物研究所lWuhan Institute of Virology:武汉病毒研究所virology:病毒学lInternational Health Regulation (IHR):国际卫生条例

New Coronavirus Cases Appear Outside of China

New Coronavirus Cases Appear Outside of ChinaTRANSCRIPTA World Health Organization (WHO) official is crediting China with controlling the new coronavirus in Wuhan, the city where the virus was first identified.The head of a WHO team in China, Bruce Aylward, said Monday that Chinese actions had probably prevented hundreds of thousands of coronavirus cases.He spoke as Italy, South Korea and Iran each reported sharp increases in cases.Italy's government reported Monday that a seventh person infected with the virus died in the country. Italy has Europe's largest number of reported infections. More than 220 cases have been reported nationwide.To guard against the disease, Italian officials have set up roadblocks, cancelled football games and closed theaters, including the famous La Scala opera house. In northern Italy, officials closed schools, universities and museumsfor at least one week. In addition, 10 towns in the Lombardy area, near the city of Milan, have been placed under what the Reuters news agency calls an "effective quarantine."The total number of cases worldwide is thought to be greater than 79,000. Groups of infected people have emergedin a number of places that had not reported cases earlier.WHO chief Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said that, "The past few weeks (have)demonstrated just how quickly a new virus can spread around the world and cause widespread fear and disruption."Iran's semi-officialnews agency ILNA news reported that 50 people had died from COVID-19. That is the name for the disease that results from the coronavirus. However, Iran's Health Ministry disputes the report, saying the number of people who have died from the disease remains at 12.In South Korea, the government said it has taken "powerful steps" to limit the crisis. President Moon Jae-in has placed the country under its highest warning level.Health officials are concerned about people in the city of Daegu, where police searched for members of a religious group. More than half of the country's coronavirus cases have been linked to the group.Health workers said they planned to test everyone in Daegu who showed signs of a cold.South Korea's vice health minister Kim Gang-lip said, "If we fail to effectively prevent the spread of the virus into the local communities, there would be a large possibility (that the cases) spread nationwide."On Monday, the National Assembly in Seoul was temporarily closed so workers could disinfectthe building.In Japan, health officials have reported more than 800 coronavirus cases. Many of them involved passengers on the quarantined cruiseship Diamond Princess.China, where the virus started, continues to report hundreds of new cases, yet the numbers are smaller than earlier in the month.The disease has infected not only civilians but also health workers. Most of those cases are in the city of Wuhan. China largely banned travel into and out of Wuhan and several other cities in Hubei Province in an effort to slow the disease.WHO official credits China's actionsThe head of the WHO delegation to China, Bruce Aylward, credited Chinese actions for controlling the spread of the virus. He urged other nations to learn the lesson of acting quickly."The world is in your debt," Aylward said of the people in Wuhan.In addition, China said it plans to postpone the meetings of the National People's Congress in an effort to avoid spreading the disease.The news about coronavirus infections was blamed for sharp drops in the value of stock shares on financial markets in Europe and the United States. Leading measures of European stock prices dropped by three percent or more by the close of business on Monday. I'm Anne Ball.Mario Ritter Jr. adapted the story from Reports by the Associated Press and Reuters news agency for VOA Learning English. George Grow was the editor._________________________________________________________Words in This Storymuseum n.a center or organization set up for the care and study of objects of lasting interest or valuequarantined adj. being kept apart from others in order to prevent a disease from spreadingemerge v. to become known or apparentdisruption n. to cause something to be unable to continue in a normal waysemi-official adj.have some or limited official standingdisinfect n. to clean in an effort to remove harmful germs such as viruses and bacteriacruise adj.of or related to sailing to a series of ports

Everything you need to know about coronavirus (III)

Everything you need to know aboutcoronavirus, the deadly illness alarming the world (Ⅲ)威慑全球的致命冠状病毒,你所需要了解的一切(三)Is there avaccine(1)for the coronavirus?There are no drugs or vaccines for coronaviruses yet, including 2019-nCov. Doctors can only treat the symptoms they cause.However, scientists atThe Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity(2)in Melbourne, Australia, say they were able to successfully grow the novel coronavirus in cell culture outside of China for the first time ever.Dr. Mike Catton,deputy(3)director of the Doherty Institute, said in a statement the breakthrough provides crucial information “to assist in the assessment of effectiveness oftrial(4)vaccines.”According to the South China Morning Post, China might already have a vaccine developed but needs more time to test it. Hong Kong University professor Yuen Kwok-yung told the paper it will take months to test the vaccine on animals and at least another year to conduct clinical trials on humans.How contagious is the coronavirus?A virus canlinger(5)in the air and infect people for two hours after an infected person leaves the room.Who is most at risk of getting coronavirus?Chinese scientists have decoded the 2019-nCoV DNA and made it public. Researchers are analyzing the data in hope of finding a vaccine.Hooper said that experts are still learning about the virus and information remains limited.However, he points to elderly and people who are sick with other conditions as ademographic(6)who are over-represented in the coronavirus death toll.“For those who do have the disease, it seems like the elderly and people withcomorbid(7)conditions are more likely to have serious illness,” he said.Hooper said it's unknown if women infected with the virus can have complications while pregnant, like the Zika virus, which causesmicrocephaly(8)and otherfetal(9)brain defects.How can you prevent catching the coronavirus?As there's no available vaccine, the CDC recommends taking preventative measures to decrease the likelihood of infection:Wear a respirator(10). N95 or higher respirators prevent exposure to smallairborne particles(11)and biological aerosols(12)including viruses and bacteria.Wash your hands. Frequently wash your hands and avoid touching your face.Avoid large crowds. Being in crowds increases risk of catching a virus.How do doctors treat the coronavirus?There’s no specific treatment for illnesses caused by human coronaviruses but the CDC recommends taking pain and fever medications, drinking plenty of liquids and staying home to rest.Notes(1)vaccine:疫苗(2)the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity:彼得·多尔蒂感染和免疫研究所(3)deputy:副的,代理的(4)trial:试验的(5)linger:持续存留(6)demographic:特定人群(7)comorbid:并发的,共患的(8)microcephaly:小头畸形症(9)fetal:胎儿的(10)respirator:口罩,医用口罩(11)airborne particle:悬浮粒子,空气中的小颗粒(12)aerosol:气溶胶

练习 | VOA慢速:中国学生问鼎PISA2018

VOA慢速:中国学生问鼎PISA2018燕山大学刘立军编写uTRANSCRIPTStudents from China and Singapore came out on top in an international survey of educational achievement.Results of the 2018 Program for International Student Assessment, orPISA, were released Tuesday. The test is given every three years to 15-year-olds around the world. It measures their knowledge in reading, science and mathematics.The best-performing students in all three subjects were in China. They attend schools in and around Beijing and Shanghai, and two provinces: Jiangsu and Zhejiang.Singapore finished in fifth place in the study.Overall, the test results show American students scoring above average in reading and science, but below average in math.The test is administered by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).Officials reported that about 600,000 students in 79 nations and educational systems took part in the two-hour computer-based exam last year. They said schools in each country are chosen randomly to make sure that students come from a wide mix of backgrounds and abilities.PISA is the largest measure of international education performance. The test scores are watched closely by education policy makers.Here are some of the PISA findings:The average U.S. scores have not changed in a major way in any of the three subjects since 2015. The U.S. scores are mostly unchanged since when the test was first given in 2000 for reading and, in 2003, for math. American science scores have risen since 2006.Out of the 79 areas, only seven have seen an improvement in their PISA scores since they started offering the test. The seven are Albania, Colombia, Macau, Moldova, Peru, Portugal and Qatar.TheOECDis a group of 36 mostly industrial countries, including the United States. Financing - the amount of money spent on education is important, but not always necessary for high test scores. Take Estonia, for example. It was one of the top scoring countries, yet education spending there is 30 percent below the OECD average.With reading being the main focus of the test this year, one of every four students in OECD countries could not complete basic reading tasks.On average across the OECD countries, one in 10 disadvantaged students was able to score in the top quarter of the reading performance of their country.The U.S. results showed that the highest performing students were doing better in reading and math, while the lower-performing students did not improve.This is similar to results from another nationwide test, the National Assessment of Educational Progress."It's another red flag that this is something to think about," said Peggy Carr, the associate commissioner for the National Center for Education Statistics. She noted that the United States is "clearly struggling in math."What is not clear about the group of Chinese students tested is whether they represent all Chinese students. Carr noted that the four test areas are home to more wealthy people than China as a whole.The Chinese areas displaced the top school system in the 2015 PISA, the Asian city-state of Singapore.Tom Loveless, an educational researcher from California, said the Chinese provinces that were tested saw a substantial increase in their scores. He said China is the only country where the national government chooses the provinces that are tested."It still makes it very difficult to interpret the Chinese scores," he said.Loveless describes the overall performance of American students asmediocre."The U.S. is basically doing what it's done since PISA started, which is hanging around the middle" of the group," he said.Andreas Schleicher is Director for the OECD's Directorate of Education and Skills. He said there is hope for countries where there is not much difference in the performance of students from wealthy and poor backgrounds. Education, he says, remains a way for poor children in some countries to be successful.uVOCABULARY1.PISAn. PISA是国际学生评估项目的缩写(Program for International Student Assessment,PISA),是经济合作与发展组织(Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development,OECD)成员共同开发的项目,其目的是测试15岁学生是否掌握了参与未来知识社会所必需的基础知识与基本技能。2.OECDn.经济合作与发展组织(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development,OECD),简称经合组织,是由36个市场经济国家组成的政府间国际经济组织,旨在共同应对全球化带来的经济、社会和政府治理等方面的挑战,并把握全球化带来的机遇。总部设在巴黎。3.mediocreadj. (disapproving) not very good; of only average standard平庸的;普通的;平常的。例如:a mediocre musician / talent / performance平庸的音乐家/才能/表演uQUESTIONSTASK IListen to the news and choose the best answer to each question you hear.1. Who was on top in the 2018 PISA test?A.Students from China and Singapore.B.Students from China and America.C.Students from China and Albania. D.Students from China and Colombia.2. What does PISA measure?A.It measures knowledge in reading, science and physics.B.It measures knowledge in reading, science and mathematics.C.It measures knowledge in reading, science and chemistry.D.It measures knowledge in reading, science and philosophy.TASK IIRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the staments are true or false.Here are some of the PISA findings:q1. The average U.S. scores have not changed in a major way in any of the three subjects since 2015.q2. Out of the 79 areas, only seventeen have seen an improvement in their PISA scores since they started offering the test.q3. The OECD is a group of 36 mostly industrial countries, including the United States.q4. Financing, the amount of money spent on education, is important, always necessary for high test scores.q5. With mathematics being the main focus of the test this year, one of every four students in OECD countries could not complete basic mathematics tasks.q6. On average across the OECD countries, one in 10 disadvantaged students was able to score in the top quarter of the reading performance of their country.q7. The U.S. results showed that the highest performing students were doing better in reading and science, while the lower-performing students did not improve.q8. What is not clear about the group of Chinese students tested is whether they represent all Chinese students.q9. Loveless describes the overall performance of American students as mediocre.q10. Education remains a way for poor children in some countries to be successful.uKEYTASK I1. A。细节题。命题出处:Students from China and Singaporecame out on top in an international survey of educational achievement.2. B。细节题。命题出处:Results of the 2018 Program for International Student Assessment, orPISA, were released Tuesday. The test is given every three years to 15-year-olds around the world. It measures theirknowledge in reading, science and mathematics.TASK IIRead the statements. Then listen to the news and decide whether the staments are true or false.Here are some of the PISA findings:þ1. The average U.S. scores have not changed in a major way in any of the three subjects since 2015.ý2. Out of the 79 areas, onlyseventeenhave seen an improvement in their PISA scores since they started offering the test. (正确表达) Out of the 79 areas, onlysevenhave seen an improvement in their PISA scores since they started offering the test.þ3. The OECD is a group of 36 mostly industrial countries, including the United States.ý4. Financing, the amount of money spent on education, is important,alwaysnecessary for high test scores. (正确表达)Financing, the amount of money spent on education, is important,but not alwaysnecessary for high test scores.ý5. Withmathematicsbeing the main focus of the test this year, one of every four students in OECD countries could not complete basicmathematicstasks. (正确表达)Withreadingbeing the main focus of the test this year, one of every four students in OECD countries could not complete basicreadingtasks.þ6. On average across the OECD countries, one in 10 disadvantaged students was able to score in the top quarter of the reading performance of their country.ý7. The U.S. results showed that the highest performing students were doing better inreading and science, while the lower-performing students did not improve. (正确表达)The U.S. results showed that the highest performing students were doing better inreading and math, while the lower-performing students did not improve.þ8. What is not clear about the group of Chinese students tested is whether they represent all Chinese students.þ9. Loveless describes the overall performance of American students as mediocre.þ10. Education remains a way for poor children in some countries to be successful.

练习 | VOA常速:孩子们学习编程并编写小游戏

VOA常速:孩子们学习编程并编写小游戏燕山大学 刘立军编写TRANSCRIPTMy name is Ethan. I’m 10 years old. I worked on some robots and a game. It’s kind of difficult. I hope I can make five or seven games by the end of this week.Code Ninjas is a center where children, ages 7 through 14, learn how to code. We want to leverage screen time and make it productive. Kids love video games. That’s why we have built our curriculum around learning how to code. By building video games, the kids are engaged. When they’re engaged and having fun, they’re going to learn. We also had a drone station where the drones were being coded, so that they would code the flight path, test it out through the hoops and then adjust as necessary. Our Code Sensei’s have a variety of background. The first thing that we look for is that they’re good with children.It looks awesome. My name is Andrea Hatcher. I am a Code Sensei here. It’s a real traffic light. I am a junior at Penn State, studying cybersecurity.There you go.Girls are something in STEM that I’m very, very passionate about, always have been, very passionate about, always have been. And the girls, you know, they stay with the boys. They love it.The cyber and technology field is the fastest growing industry in the world. The United States is far behind it. The earlier you learn, the more time you have to develop and hone in those skills.And that this age is when they’re really soaking up information like a sponge.Parents are happy because the kids are happy and at the end, they’re able to show Mom and Dad what they built.I have an eight-year-old daughter, Marion, who has been coming to Code Ninjas for a bit now.Last week, she created a video game where her creative dinosaur would follow the mouse around and catch the mouse. So each week she is creating video games on a very small scale that will eventually build to more advanced.Coding would be a very useful skill for her to see the back end of the video games that she loves playing, and help her kind of formulate the necessary skill set to see if that is something that she wants to do. She’s only eight. So, it’s really fun right now.VOCABULARY1. leverage v. 利用2.drone n. an aircraft without a pilot, controlled from the ground 无人驾驶飞机3. cybersecurity n. 网络安全4. hone v. to develop and improve sth., especially a skill, over a period of time 磨练,训练(尤指技艺)。例如: His body was honed to perfection. 他的身体锻炼得十全十美。 She honed her debating skills at college. 她在大学时便练就了辩论技巧。 It was a finely honed piece of writing. 那是一篇经过仔细推敲写成的文章。5. soak up: to take in or absorb liquid 吸收,吸掉(液体)。例如:Use a cloth to soak up some of the excess water. 用布把多余的水吸去。QUESTIONSRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.My name is Ethan. I’m 10 years old. I worked on some (Q1) ____________ and a game. It’s kind of difficult. I hope I can make five or seven games by the end of this week.Code Ninjas is a center where children, ages 7 through 14, learn (Q2) ____________________. We want to leverage screen time and make it productive. Kids love (Q3) _______________________. That’s why we have built our curriculum around learning how to code. By building video games, the kids are engaged. When they’re engaged and having fun, they’re going to learn. We also had a (Q4) _________________________ where the drones were being coded, so that they would code the flight path, test it out through the hoops and then adjust as necessary. Our Code Senseis have a variety of background. The first thing that we look for is that they’re (Q5) ____________ with children.It looks awesome. My name is Andrea Hatcher. I am a Code Sensei here. It’s a real traffic light. I am a (Q6) ________________ at Penn State, studying cybersecurity.There you go.Girls are something in STEM that I’m very, very (Q7) _________________ about, always have been, very passionate about, always have been. And the girls, you know, they stay with the boys. They love it.The (Q8) ________________________ field is the fastest growing industry in the world. The United States is (Q9) ___________________ it. The earlier you learn, the more time you have to develop and hone in those skills. And that this age is when they’re really soaking up information like a (Q10) ___________________.Parents are happy because the kids are happy and at the end, they’re able to show Mom and Dad what they built.I have an eight-year-old (Q11) ___________________, Marion, who has been coming to Code Ninjas for a bit now. Last week, she created a video game where her creative (Q12) ____________ would follow the mouse around and catch the mouse. So each week she is creating video games on a very small scale that will eventually build to more (Q13) ____________________.Coding would be a very useful skill for her to see the back end of the video games that she loves playing, and help her kind of (Q14) ____________________ the necessary skill set to see if that is something that she wants to do. She’s only eight. So, it’s really (Q15) ________________ right now.KEYRead the passage. Then listen to the news and fill in the blanks with the information (words, phrases or sentences) you hear.My name is Ethan. I’m 10 years old. I worked on some (Q1) robots and a game. It’s kind of difficult. I hope I can make five or seven games by the end of this week.Code Ninjas is a center where children, ages 7 through 14, learn (Q2) how to code. We want to leverage screen time and make it productive. Kids love (Q3) video games. That’s why we have built our curriculum around learning how to code. By building video games, the kids are engaged. When they’re engaged and having fun, they’re going to learn. We also had a (Q4) drone station where the drones were being coded, so that they would code the flight path, test it out through the hoops and then adjust as necessary. Our Code Senseis have a variety of background. The first thing that we look for is that they’re (Q5) good with children.It looks awesome. My name is Andrea Hatcher. I am a Code Sensei here. It’s a real traffic light. I am a (Q6) junior at Penn State, studying cybersecurity.There you go.Girls are something in STEM that I’m very, very (Q7) passionate about, always have been, very passionate about, always have been. And the girls, you know, they stay with the boys. They love it.The (Q8) cyber and technology field is the fastest growing industry in the world. The United States is (Q9) far behind it. The earlier you learn, the more time you have to develop and hone in those skills.And that this age is when they’re really soaking up information like a (Q10) sponge.Parents are happy because the kids are happy and at the end, they’re able to show Mom and Dad what they built.I have an eight-year-old (Q11) daughter, Marion, who has been coming to Code Ninjas for a bit now.Last week, she created a video game where her creative (Q12) dinosaur would follow the mouse around and catch the mouse. So each week she is creating video games on a very small scale that will eventually build to more (Q13) advanced.Coding would be a very useful skill for her to see the back end of the video games that she loves playing, and help her kind of (Q14) formulate the necessary skill set to see if that is something that she wants to do. She’s only eight. So, it’s really (Q15) fun right now.

练习 | VOA慢速:爱护牙齿有益于心脏健康

VOA慢速:爱护牙齿有益于心脏健康燕山大学 刘立军 编写TRANSCRIPTCleaning your teeth often, every day, is linked to a lower risk for heart problems. A new study found that brushing your teeth several times a day resulted in fewer cases of heart failure andatrialfibrillation- the term for an uneven heartbeat.Heart failure happens when the heart cannot do its job of pumping blood through the body.What the research found is that brushing your teeth three times a day, or more, was linked to a ten percent lower risk of atrial fibrillation. It was also linked to a twelve percent lower risk of heart failure.The study was published last Monday in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.The researchers examined information on more than 161,000 people in Korea with no history of heart problems.They followed up ten and a half years later, and found that three percent had developed uneven heart rhythms and almost five percent had developed heart failure.All the participants in the study were part of the Korean National Insurance System, and aged 40 to 79. They had usual medical exams between 2003 and 2004. Information was collected on their height, weight, laboratory tests, sicknesses, and lifestyle. They also noted their mouth health in connection with cleaning.Heart and teeth health connectionYou may wonder how are teeth health and heart health connected?Earlier research suggests that not taking care to clean and brush teeth leads to bacteria in the blood. This can cause inflammation, and increases the risk for unusual heartbeat and heart failure.A study last year by the American Heart Association showed that brushing your teeth twice a day for at least two minutes may lower the risk of cardiovascular, or heart diseases.That study looked at a smaller group of fewer than 700 people. The AHA said that the researchers found that people who brushed less than twice a day for less than two minutes were three times more at risk, compared to those who brush at least twice a day for two minutes.Gumsare the soft tissue structure that hold the teeth. They need to be cleaned as well. Experts say if gums are not cared for this way they can becomeinflamed. They say there is a connection between such inflammation, and future heart disease.The lead investigator of the new study is Tae-Jin Song, a doctor and professor at Mokdong Hospital at Ewha Womans University in Seoul, South Korea. He noted "we studied a large group over a long period, which adds strength to our findings."But he said that the research was limited to one country and as an observational study does not provecausation.The American Dental Association agrees. The organization said "this study is interesting, and while it may suggest an association between tooth brushing and heart health, it does not show a direct connection."To have good oral health, the ADA advises people to:Brush their teeth twice a day for two minutes each time with afluoridetoothpasteClean between their teeth once per dayMaintain a healthy dietSee a dentist regularlyMouth care companies have taken note. Some manufacture electric toothbrushes programmed to run for two minutes. That way, people do not have to watch the time while brushing their teeth.I'm Anne Ball.VOCABULARY1.atrialfibrillationn.心房颤动2.gumn.(可数名词,常用复数) either of the firm areas of flesh in the mouth to which the teeth are attached牙龈;齿龈;牙床。例如:gum disease牙龈病3.inflamedadj. (of a part of the body身体部位) red, sore and hot because of infection or injury发炎的;红肿的4.causationn. the process of one event causing or producing another event诱因;起因;原因5.fluoriden.氟化物QUESTIONSRead the statements. Then listen to the news anddecide whether thestatementsare true (T) or false (F).1. A new study found that brushing your teeth seven times a day resulted in fewer cases of heart failure and atrial fibrillation.2. Heart failure happens when the heart cannot do its job of pumping blood through the body.3. The research found that brushing your teeth three times a day, or more, was linked to a ten percent lower risk of heart failure.4. The study was published last Month in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.5. The researchers examined information on more than 161,000 people in Korea with no history of heart problems.6. They followed up ten and a half years later, and found that five percent had developed uneven heart rhythms and almost three percent had developed heart failure.7. All the participants in the study aged 40 to 79.8. Earlier research suggests that not taking care to clean and brush teeth leads to bacteria in the blood. This can cause inflammation, and increases the risk for unusual heartbeat and heart failure.9. A study last year by the American Heart Association showed that brushing your teeth twice a day for at least two minutes may lower the risk of cardiovascular, or heart diseases.10. The study by the American Heart Association looked at a smaller group of fewer than 500 people.11. The AHA said that the researchers found that people who brushed less than twice a day for less than two minutes were three times more at risk, compared to those who brush at least twice a day for two minutes.12. Gums are the soft tissue structure that hold the teeth.13. The lead investigator of the new study is Tae-Jin Song, a doctor and professor at Mokdong Hospital at Ewha Womans University in Seoul, South Korea.14. To have good oral health, the ADA advises people to brush their teeth twice a day for two minutes each time with any toothpaste.15. Some mouth care companies manufacture electric toothbrushes programmed to run for three minutes.KEYRead the statements. Then listen to the news and check the true (T) or false (F) statements.(F)1. A new study found that brushing your teethseven times a dayresulted in fewer cases of heart failure and atrial fibrillation. (正确表达)A new study found that brushing your teethseveral times a dayresulted in fewer cases of heart failure and atrial fibrillation.(T)2. Heart failure happens when the heart cannot do its job of pumping blood through the body.(F)3. The research found that brushing your teeth three times a day, or more, was linked to atenpercent lower risk of heart failure. (正确表达)The research found that brushing your teeth three times a day, or more, was linked to atwelvepercent lower risk of heart failure.(F)4. The study was publishedlast Monthin the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. (正确表达)The study was publishedlast Mondayin the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.(T)5. The researchers examined information on more than 161,000 people in Korea with no history of heart problems.(F)6. They followed up ten and a half years later, and found thatfive percenthad developed uneven heart rhythms and almostthree percenthad developed heart failure. (正确表达)They followed up ten and a half years later, and found thatthree percenthad developed uneven heart rhythms and almostfive percenthad developed heart failure.(T)7. All the participants in the study aged 40 to 79.(T)8. Earlier research suggests that not taking care to clean and brush teeth leads to bacteria in the blood. This can cause inflammation, and increases the risk for unusual heartbeat and heart failure.(T)9. A study last year by the American Heart Association showed that brushing your teeth twice a day for at least two minutes may lower the risk of cardiovascular, or heart diseases.(F)10. The study by the American Heart Association looked at a smaller group of fewer than500 people. (正确表达)The study by the American Heart Association looked at a smaller group of fewer than700 people.(T)11. The AHA said that the researchers found that people who brushed less than twice a day for less than two minutes were three times more at risk, compared to those who brush at least twice a day for two minutes.(T)12. Gums are the soft tissue structure that hold the teeth.(T)13. The lead investigator of the new study is Tae-Jin Song, a doctor and professor at Mokdong Hospital at Ewha Womans University in Seoul, South Korea.(F)14. To have good oral health, the ADA advises people to brush their teeth twice a day for two minutes each time withany toothpaste. (正确表达)To have good oral health, the ADA advises people to brush their teeth twice a day for two minutes each time witha fluoride toothpaste.(F)15. Some mouth care companies manufacture electric toothbrushes programmed to run forthree minutes. (正确表达)Some mouth care companies manufacture electric toothbrushes programmed to run fortwo minutes.

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